Dec 312012
 

Candle image posted by Google India

Sexual violence in India

Over the past two weeks, India’s news has been dominated by the brutal gang-rape of a 23-year-old physiotherapy student in Delhi while on her way home with her fiancé after going to the cinema. By Western media standards, it is almost a miracle that her real name has not been published. Instead, the Indian media have named her Nirbhaya (fearless one/braveheart), Amanat (after a TV soap opera about a father with seven daughters) or Damini (after the heroine of a hit film who refuses to let a rapist escape justice).

Unfortunately, this was just one example of the violence faced by women in India. Even as the protests mounted, an 18-year-old gang-rape victim committed suicide in Punjab after coming under pressure from police either to come to a financial settlement with her attackers or to marry one of them! According to Russia Today, “Official figures show that 228,650 of the total 256,329 violent crimes recorded last year in India were against women. However the real figure is thought to be much higher as so many women are reluctant to report attacks to the police.”

Several of our friends and relatives in India have joined the online protests, with some changing their social media profile pictures to a black square or a black circle following news of the death of Nirbhaya/Amanat/Damini on Friday night. On Saturday morning, “RIP Nirbhaya” was the #1 topic on Twitter in India, where 8 of the top ten trending topics were related to it.

Some have been calling for the death penalty for rapists, although there is no evidence that this would discourage rape. Rather, as suggested by a protestor and social worker interviewed by the BBC, it could encourage rapists to kill their victims to ensure that their crime was not reported.

The public outcry has led to a number of analyses of how India treats its women and drew attention to its “rape culture“. A male Indian MP, who is the son of India’s President, dismissed the protestors as “pretty women who were dented and painted” who had “no contact with ground reality”. However, the fierce reaction to his remarks (such as this ironic open letter) obliged him to withdraw them.

The initially muted reactions of senior politicians contrasted sharply with the emotional reactions of the protestors. Perhaps the underlying reason for the former is the challenge of changing attitudes which have been endemic in Indian culture for centuries. For example, this article identified 10 reasons why India has a sexual violence problem and the above Al Jazeera discussion explores what it would take to confront India’s ‘culture of rape’.

Tagore’s campaign for women’s emancipation

Tagore was clearly conscious of this and the women in his works are often strong and outspoken, while suffering from tradition. His campaign for women’s emancipation was decades ahead of equivalent thinking in the West. There have been many scholarly analyses of the female characters in his works and some see his legacy regarding women’s role in society as being one of his most important contributions (see, for example, Rabindranath Tagore’s legacy lies in the freedom-seeking women of his fiction).

“Violence against women must never be accepted, never excused, never tolerated. Every girl and woman has the right to be respected, valued and protected.” – UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon

As well as being one of the media names for the Delhi gang-rape victim, Damini is the name of the female protagonist in Tagore’s 1916 novella Chaturanga (Broken Ties or, more literally, Quartet). Damini’s role in Chaturanga, in which she represents truth and innocence, has been compared to those of Nora in Ibsen’s A Doll’s House and Stella in Rattigan’s A Streetcar Named Desire. All the female characters in Chaturanga suffer at the hands of men, with two of them committing suicide as a result.

In his novel Jogajog, (Contact), Tagore highlights the issue of marital rape. In his short story Shasthi (Punishment), two brothers work in the fields all day while their wives stay at home to cook, clean and bring up a child. When one of the brothers kills his wife for explaining that there is no food because he hadn’t brought home enough money, the ‘pillar of the village’ (a man) helps them to pass the blame onto the other wife, who is subsequently executed.

In 1936, Tagore campaigned more overtly for women to step out of the precincts of their homes and play a greater role in society. His paper Nari (Women) was part of his campaign, which included speeches and his dance-drama Chitrangada. Perhaps it is no coincidence that 1936 was also the year in which Victoria Ocampo, Tagore’s “distant muse“, co-founded the Argentine Union of Women.

In fact, all three of Tagore’s dance-dramas (ChitrangadaChandalika and Shyama) are centred on female characters who live at the fringes of society – a warrior princess, an untouchable and a courtesan. Dr Sutapa Chaudhuri has written an interesting analysis of the expression of self and female desire in Tagore’s dance-dramas. She provides more detail in her paper on class, caste and gender in Chandalika.

Tagore created a social revolution by pioneering coeducation at his school in Santiniketan. However, parents still resisted allowing their daughters to dance on stage for many years for fear that they would be viewed by society as prostitutes. The criticism of women dressing “provocatively” is perhaps the modern version of this attitude, without daring to challenge the indecency of those men who molest women.

Where the mind is without fear …

Not surprisingly, several commentaries on the Delhi rape have cited Tagore’s poem Where the mind is without fear as being an as-yet unfulfilled dream for women. Some have pointed out that several elected Indian politicians have been charged with rape – a factor which would be a major electoral liability in Western democracies. Yet it seems to be viewed as being acceptable/unavoidable, male behaviour by a patriarchal, Indian society in which the ratio of girls to boys is one of the lowest in the world.

“Rape happens everywhere: it happens inside homes, in families, in neighbourhoods, in police stations, in towns and cities, in villages, and its incidence increases, as is happening in India, as society goes through change, as women’s roles begin to change, as economies slow down and the slice of the pie becomes smaller — and it is connected to all these things. Just as it is integrally and fundamentally connected to the disregard, and indeed the hatred, for females that is so evident in the killing of female foetuses. For so widespread a crime, band aid solutions are not the answer.” – Urvashi Butalia, The Hindu

Just before Christmas, Valerian Santos wrote to India’s Prime Minister proposing stronger laws to ensure better security for women in India. His son Keenan Santos, together with his friend Reuben Fernandes, was stabbed to death by a mob for taking on a man who had harassed their female friends in Mumbai in October 2011. In addition to the comments from UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon above, UN human rights chief Navi Pillay has called for profound change in India in the wake of the gang-rape tragedy.

Of course, India is not the only country in the world where women suffer sexual violence. However, as I write just after the start of 2013 there, it seems to be the only country whose people have found the collective will to begin to tackle the problem. As India’s people, particularly the younger generation, seek a new dawn in attitudes towards women, they (and indeed people of other countries) may find that Tagore’s works could offer inspiration on changing society to empower and respect women.

Jun 082010
 

Poster for My Name is Khan

Kaberi and I went to see this film last weekend. It’s quite a remarkable film in several ways and I’d recommend you to see it.

My name is Khan is an Indian film. To many in the West, this may bring to mind a 3-hour romantic film with a good-guy-falls-in-love-with-nice-girl-who-falls-for-bad-guy-but-is-rescued-by-good-guy-and-falls-in-love-and-they-live-happily-ever-after plot in which the main characters burst spontaneously into song on the slightest pretext and dozens of dancers appear from nowhere to join them in a series of dazzling song-and-dance routines.

At 2 hours 41 minutes, My name is Khan certainly has the right dimensions. Its main stars, Shah Rukh Khan and Kajol are also a classic ‘Bollywood’ pair. But that’s where the stereotype ends because this is a very topical story about love, prejudice, tragedy and basic humanity with no singing (well, there is some) and no dancing.

Rizvan Khan (played by Shah Rukh Khan) is the older of two brothers who grows up in a middle-class household in Mumbai. He can repair anything but he is clearly different from other children and suffers their taunts. Only his mother makes the effort to understand him, to the envy of his younger brother, who leaves home at the earliest opportunity and goes to the US to find his fortune.

After his mother’s death, Rizvan travels to the US, where his sister-in-law notices his aversion to physical contact and eye contact, as well as his sensitivity to noise, the colour yellow and his tendency to repeat the actions he sees others doing. She realises that these characteristics and his social awkwardness are symptoms of Asperger’s syndrome, a form of autism.

After this, the film takes us through his romantic pursuit of single-mother hairdresser Mandira (played by Kajol). A more conventional film would have ended there, with them getting married and enjoying life with Mandira’s son Sam. Here, though, My name is Khan moves into the next phase of the story, which is triggered by the 9/11 attacks.

From this point on, the film takes a more serious turn, showing the hostility shown by Americans towards Muslims after these attacks and the reason behind Rizvan’s mission to tell the US President that ‘My name is Khan and I am not a terrorist’.  [You can read a more complete review of My name is Khan here .]

For me, although the style is very different from that of Tagore and Shyama, I recognised the underlying message of compassion and humanism triumphing over hatred and revenge. In this respect, the film shares Tagore’s vision. Unfortunately, the release of My name is Khan in India was marred by violent protests, with over 1,800 people arrested in Mumbai for vandalising cinemas advertising the film even before its release and the head of the Hindu fundamentalist Shiv Sena group telling Shah Rukh Khan to move to Pakistan, or face ‘dire consequences’.

Now, my name is Chatterjee and I am not a Muslim but I do find it deeply disturbing that the intolerance which the film complained of in the US is also very present in India. Long before the partition of India in 1947 as part of its independence from Britain, Tagore, who was a Brahmo (a branch of Hinduism), was extremely concerned by the growing tension between Hindus and Muslims – India had long been a secular society. This was part of the historical context which led him to create Shyama in 1939.

In any case, I think My name is Khan is remarkable for having tackled the issue of intolerance in such a moving way. It is also remarkable for being very well made, out-doing many Hollywood films on style, acting, direction, music, photography and plot. The performances particularly by Shah Rukh Khan and Kajol are very convincing and could have led to Oscar nominations … except that there is a certain intolerance among the Academy Awards which leads to all the non-English speaking films released in the US to be obliged to compete for only the ‘Best Foreign language film’ Oscar. Achieving a successful release in cinemas in several countries around the world is impressive too (thanks to Fox Searchlight, which also released Slumdog Millionaire).

Finally, a friend of ours pointed out a review which dismissed My name is Khan as ‘a US-set Bollywood film with a post-9-11 message and a disturbing similarity to “Forrest Gump”‘ and concluded that ‘While lacking big musical numbers, it still has Bollywood’s broad sentimentality and a cavalier attitude to reality. Bizarre but different.’ Those comments could have been written just by reading the synopsis … but perhaps they reveal a certain prejudice?

International trailer for My name is Khan

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